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The high voltage page is dedicated to some interesting circuits using automotive ignition coils, or step-up transformers.

Circuit descriptions and images are available, i have tried to make it as clear as possible in the block diagrams, also there are some high resolution/quality pics from a digi camera to check out on myspace.com/teslaenergy, and SkyDrive or see below for individual links!.

The automotive coils that i acquired are the oil filled kind and were given to me by friends, i guess you may need to try different types of coils, to achieve the same results
The datafile (which contains expected windings ratio and detailed information) on the coils used here in can be located here (Ignition Coil Datafile.pdf)
Additionally you might also like to look through the results of some calculations i performed to answer a question that was posed to me relating to wireless transmission voltages, from this pdf file link (Volt_Calc_Email.pdf)

So you be the judge... but i can say with a fair degree of confidence, that if your coils have a similar or identical ratio on the primary and secondary windings, you should be able to attain similar results (power supply and blown bulbs will need to be fairly identical aswell!).
The only other thing that one should note, all of the high voltage capacitors mentioned on this page are the "Greencap" or "Mylar" kind, most of which i have salvaged from old televisions (really old ones), they are constructed by rolled sheets of aluminum foil separated by a dielectric material and finally coated with a durable kind of substance (ceramic, plastic or it might even be a kind of paint, i am not sure, i can tell you that, when they explode, the coating comes off, exposing the sheets of rolled aluminum).
Electrolytic types are usually DC only (possibly due to fact that the dielectric electrolyte used, would breakdown under an alternating current, thus destroying the dielectric).

It would appear as though my diagram or representation of an "Old oil filled type" car/automobile ignition/induction transformer/coil or solenoid (whatever you like to call them), has cause some confusion amongst my readers, i apologise for that and so i have created this below image with the hope to help people better understand these schematics.

Fig. 1 is the image of my simplified representation, of the old "oil filled" type car ignition coil (transformer) and Fig. 2 is a more descript representation of the (Fig. 1) old "oil filled" type automobile ignition coil and displays how the actual coils inside are connected to the circuit/system and below these is an actual image of one.



The first thing i shall start with, is the glowing light bulbs and plasma bulbs, now keep in mind, these light bulbs have had their filaments blown and no longer work in a normal torch but when we connect them into high voltage circuits, they become rather interesting pieces of equipment!.
In normal operation, they will act as mere spark gaps (you can see the spark/electrons jump through the air from one wire to another) but if the sparks occur in rapid succession and under the correct conditions (the gap small enough and enough filament left in the "blown" bulb), this once blown bulb, will again come to life, spewing out trillions of photons and lighting up the entire room!.
The bulb must require a voltage that is high enough to jump the gap and the filament would still have to require a certain amount of current to glow!.
Why it continues to glow with a DC power supply still baffles me a little, the magnetic field of the primary windings are obviously still changing, possibly due to self inductance brought on by induced charges in the secondary windings, these charges in the secondary would be opposing the fields and electron flow in the primary (i have opened up the DC power supply that i was using with this experiment and i noticed a capacitor... along with a rectifier inside, so the reason the bulb continues to glow must be related to harmonics).

A 12v DC 1Amp or 12v AC 20w power supply was connected in parallel with an automotive induction coil and two 100v 3.3j capacitors (these capacitors are connected to each other in series, to form a 200v 1.61uF capacitance), an automatic switching device D, will periodically make and break the connection until the bulb glows, this then triggers the shut off S, which is a Photodiode, Light Dependant Resistor or LASCAR, the shut off device will then keep the switching device on and not allow it to turn off, until the light emanating from the blown bulb has ceased.

A 12v DC 1Amp or 12v AC 20w power supply was connected in parallel with two automotive induction coils (one forward biased and the other reverse biased) and two 100v 3.3j capacitors (these capacitors are connected to each other in series, to form a 200v 1.61uF capacitance), an automatic switching device D, will periodically make and break the connection until the bulb glows, this then triggers the shut off S, which is a Photodiode, Light Dependant Resistor or LASCAR, the shut off device will then keep the switching device on and not allow it to turn off, until the light emanating from the blown bulb has ceased.
The colored terminals on transformers C1 and C2 correspond to the polarity of the terminals on their primary coils (red for positive and blue for negative), the polarity symbols (+ and -) indicate how they are actually wired up (it can be seen that the positive terminal of C2 is actually connected to the negative wire of the power supply).

The second coil was introduced after i had blown the light (again), upon close inspection of the filament (through my magnifier glass), i had noticed that it had simply burnt a little bit more off of the end of where the filament was already broken, so basically i had made the filament shorter/smaller and the gap longer/larger.
This increased the resistance across the air gap and the light would no longer glow regardless of how much it sparked or at least until i raised the voltage (or the pull/push of electrons), on the negative side with the second coil e.g. from 0v earth, to -1000v on the secondary.

Links to video's!.
Glowing "Blown" Bulb (1)
Glowing "Blown" Bulb (2)
Glowing "Blown" Bulb (Close Up)


With one slight modification a pretty awesome flasher/strobe light can be produced, bright enough to light up the entire room!.

A 1600v 302j capacitor, was connected in parallel with the blown light bulb and device D, made to make and break the connection between the power supply and the rest of the circuit!.
The spark is blindly bright!, the connected capacitor supplying a short, abrupt power delivery of a great current across the gap in the blown bulb.
Please note this bulb can still be made to glow!, just remove the capacitor and follow the statements made above in previous diagrams and it will still glow!.
Also note that this is dependant upon the frequency and the effect is lost at high frequencies.

Links to video's!.
Tiny Arc Lamp (1)
Tiny Arc Lamp (2)

I have also managed to get a larger blown bulb to glow but the effects upon the circuit were much different to the small torch bulbs, in that, the DC supply had to be rapidly switched on and off and it could not be held on once the bulb began to glow, if it was to be held on (once the bulb glowed) the high voltage currents would instantly cease, due to the lack of change in current flowing through the primary windings.

The bulb is a large single filament automotive bulb (like an turning indicator bulb), i am not able to tell you the wattage or amperage for the bulb, 1651 and HKR are the only things printed (stamped) in the bulbs metallic base and nothing is printed onto the glass (or it has since worn off).
The filament has a gap about (to be more precise) 1.8 to 2.0mm in length but i am sure that filaments with smaller gaps could still be brought into incandescence.
Frequency is paramount to making these bulbs glow and i have found an oscillation of around 180 to 250Hz to be sufficient, i am yet however, to increase the rate of these oscillations and the effect might be lost beyond a certain threshold in frequency.

Heat produced inside the bulb must be incredible, as it is not only enough, to bring the filament into incandescence but it also brings the terminal to which the filament was connected (inside the bulb), to near incandescence and a little more current or oscillation might just do it.
The heated terminal has no filament left on it but the entire terminal glows red hot and this can be seen in the videos, when you hear the loud click of switching off the power supply, the light/photons projected out from the filament stops instantly but one can see the heated terminal still glowing, it does rapidly cool down though , in about, i'd say 2 to 3 seconds after switching off the supply.
The terminal to which the filament is still attached, never seems to glow, only the filament itself and i am thinking that it has something to do with resistance of the filament and the gap itself or effects upon electron flow at such temperatures (electrons are effected by the heat of the incandescent filament).
Magnetic fields of the electron flow might be altered by such temperatures and effects yet to be measured and described could be taking place, like the plasmonic bunching and separation of electrons, (Click here to read more on plasmonics!).

Links to video's!.
Large Glowing "Blown" Bulb
Large Glowing "Blown" Bulb (Close Up)


Mr Tesla's original system of wireless electrical transmission, was a little bit different to what i shall be doing here, he actually grounded one terminal of the secondary coils and transferred currents through the earth/ground aswell, the patents declare, that he fed 50,000 volts of alternating current into a 0.04uF (four one-hundredths of a microfarad or 40 nanofarad) capacitor, which was subsequently discharged 5,000 times per second via mechanical operation into a primary coil of only one turn with a diameter of 240cm and an inductance of 8,000 centimeters, total primary circuit inductance measured roughly 10,000 centimeters and would vibrate (oscillate) at around 230,000 to 250,000 times per second.
The secondary windings, 50 turns of heavily insulated No. 8 cable, wound flat into a spiral form and starting from a grounded connection to the primary, would have induced into it, an electric current measuring many hundred of thousands or millions of volts and when the free terminal (non grounded terminal) is made to be insulated by surrounding atmosphere and distant from any conducting bodies, it would be surrounded by a "luminous flame-like brush or discharge often covering many hundreds or even as much as several thousand feet of surface" (Quoted from Mr Tesla's patent No. 645,576).
Electrical energy can be seen with the naked eye to be traversing a distance through the atmosphere that surrounds the highly charged free terminal, the effects however are not limited to the range in which these luminous effects can be seen and extends much further out into the surrounding atmosphere and "may fill the space within a spherical or cylindrical envelop of sixty feet or more, but reaches out to far remote regions, the insulating qualities of the air being, as i have ascertained, still sensibly impaired at a distance many hundred times that through which the luminous discharge projects from the terminal"(Quoted from Mr Tesla's patent No. 645,576).
Mr Tesla states, "with electromotive impulses not greatly exceeding fifteen to twenty million volts the energy of many thousands of horse-power may be transmitted over vast distances, measured by many hundreds and even thousands of miles, with terminals not more than 30 to 35,000 feet above the level of sea".
"While electromotive forces such as are produced by the apparatus just described may be sufficient for many purposes to which my system will or may be applied, i wish to state that i contemplate using in an industrial undertaking of this kind of forces greatly in excess of these, and with my present knowledge and experience in this novel field i would estimate them to range from twenty to fifty million volts and possibly more. By the use of these much greater forces larger amounts of energy may be conveyed through the atmosphere to remote places or regions, and the distance of transmission may be thus extended practically without limit."(Quotes from Mr Tesla's patent No. 645,576).



Only a high voltage (and i mean an extremely high voltage) electrostatic force was applied to the atmosphere and it is from my understanding of alternating currents, this high voltage electrostatic force, should be 180 degrees out of phase when compared to the currents that are traversing the earth/ground (as shown in the animated image above).
Due to the fact that each medium (the earth/ground and the atmosphere), has currents and voltages that are 180 degrees out of phase, the receiver allows currents to traverse from the earth/ground to the atmosphere (or vice versa), this is because, at any one instant of the transmission cycle, the currents in the earth/ground below the receiver circuit should be of a particular polarity (we'll say negative), while the electrostatic force felt by the aerial/antenna on the receiver would be of an opposite polarity (positive).
This means that, the circuit becomes complete through the receiver and the current path is also through the receiver, however the power is actually spread out radially (spreads evenly out over 360 degrees), this means that the above image is not quite right and not all of the energy is sent to the receiver (as the image depicts), so only a small portion of the entire circuit could be though of as being complete.
Currents ripple through the earth like a wave created in pond of water from a falling stone, possibly a bunching and separation of electrons creating the alternating like currents, like the effects of electron flow in plasmonic circuits (Click here to read more on plasmonics!).

I would also like to briefly note, Mr Tesla would have been stopped from building the Wardenclyffe tower, not for metering issues or fear of uncontrollable (unmeterable) consumption of power by the public but for "unnecessary" expenses to Mr J.P. Morgan, who was paying for this massive plan of Mr Tesla's, don't get me wrong i would love to see nothing more than this experiment brought to it's final completion and total fruition, but Mr J.P. Morgan was financing this endeavour with the hopes and plans of being the first to transmit signals across the atlantic and when Guglielmo Marconi finally succeeded in this feat, Mr Morgan would have thought otherwise of Mr Tesla's progress and plans (plus there are fears of step and touch potentials, which would have also been a damning fact of Mr Tesla's wireless power transmission system).
You must consider this scheme from a business point of view and try to put yourself in Morgan's shoes, would you have paid for this experiment when you know all to well that other people are achieving the desired results for much less expense?, not to mention that metallic conductors convey industrial amounts of electrical energy safely and the development of infrastructure to support a "wired" distribution system will create massive revenues and give jobs to literally hundreds of thousands, which in turn puts food on their families tables and sustains the ever progressing development of man, also Morgan was a stock market mogul and would have seen numerous advantages for profit by investing in the companies that ultimately produce and install these mentioned metallic conductors, not to mention the woodmill industry and the profits he could have made from the manufacturing of power poles.
The power consumption could still have been metered in a wireless transmission system exactly like it is today, the grid itself would not even have to change much, for instance, power transmitted from generating stations would be received at local sub-stations and converted or stepped down to a lower voltage and transmitted via metallic conductors to consumers where it would be metered residentially, exactly like it is today...
Do you not have a watt meter on your house somewhere?, which your power distributor periodically comes to check and thus determines your consumption of power? and you try hiding a 200+ foot aerial/antenna from those that control the airspace!.
Not to mention the fact that the body could act as a capacitor in such massive e-fields, especially for the poor individual who happens to wear a pair of shoes with highly insulating soles, although discharge currents would be negligible, nasty shocks could be delivered.
Consider this, when you stood on the ground you would have been like a receiver, your feet being the earth or ground connection and your head or upper body, moving through the "atmosphere", the aerial or antenna.

Step potential and touch potential arises when two or more areas of earth or conductor are at different voltages (if you want to know more, purchase and read "Electrical Essentials for Power Line Workers", ISBN:1401883583).


It is said, to get oneself out of an area of step potential, you should keep both feet together and hop out of the area, if you were to walk or take a step, then the foot that is leading will be at a different voltage the instant it touches the ground (away from your other foot).
Your feet must be kept together to keep them at the same potential in voltage.
Perhaps at particular frequencies, the wave length or distance between peaks (it can be measured, even if it is in miles or kilometers at lower frequencies) in the oscillation could render step potentials to a safe distance (areas of different potential must be further apart than the distance covered by taking one step) but this still does not eliminate touch potentials and under the correct conditions step potentials could still be lethal, plumbing for instance, has underground conductive pipes, that can span for many miles and can therefor come under the influence of the step potentials in the ground (on a good note though, they would also increase the conductivity of the earth, currents would travel the metallic pipes (with less resistance) through the earth).


Mr Tesla's wireless transmission of electrical energy can be achieved using automotive coils (but remember we are not using 15 million volts here! so don't expect to be running anything to grand).
I was using L.E.Ds, but i have since acquired a xenon (it might be neon) bulb and it has proved itself to be more than perfect for this experiment, because you can visually indicate the presence of electrical energy being transmitted and it's operating parameters are rather extreme, requiring only a high voltage and very little current to produce enough light to see (their is also NO filament to blow), i have filmed this with my digital camera and the videos are available from myspace.com/teslaenergy and SkyDrive!.

It must first be stated, that both positive and negative energy is transmitted (depending on how you look at it), at one point of the transmission, the transmitter is positive and is transmitting energy out, whilst on the other half of the cycle, the transmitter is negative and is accepting electrical energy from it's surrounds.
This is due to the primary and secondary coils of the transformer, while the magnetic field of the primary is growing, the secondary is positive and when the magnetic field of the primary coil collapses, the secondary becomes negative, the transmitter aerial/antenna being connected to this secondary coil will convey the charges (i previously stated at this point, that the highly self-inductive coil was used in an attempt to rectify the alternating currents present in the secondary, but i have since realized that it is purely to increase the output voltage to subjected to the atmosphere and that the receiver would in fact, not function unless the currents transmitted were alternating).

The above two diagrams are the most basic of all.
The first image is a circuit that can be employed to investigate the effects of energy transmitted to a grounding point, the transmitted energy shall act upon a device after transmission but before grounding!.
The second image is a circuit that can be employed to investigate the effects of energy drawn from a grounding point, the energy that comes from ground must first act upon a device before being transmitted!.

On the first half (positive half) of the cycle, energy is sent from the positively charged transmitter T1, travels through the air and strikes upon the metallic plate T2, then conducts through the (high voltage) diode R to ground!.
On the second half (negative half) of the cycle, energy is drawn to the negatively charged transmitter T1 from a distant grounding location, the energy travels from ground and through the (high voltage) diode R before being drawn through the surrounding atmosphere to land on the metallic ball T1!.

D is a device for automatically switching the power to the circuit on and off in rapid succession, when the device is switched on, electrons will rush through the primary coil of transformer C, creating an electromagnetic field around the primary windings, this in turn induces a separate high voltage charge of a certain polarity (e.g. positive) in the secondary coil of the transformer C, the antenna T1 is connected to this high voltage terminal and conveys the high voltage charge into the atmosphere.
Once a high voltage charge has been induced into the secondary coil of said transformer, the switching device should turn off, this allows the electromagnetic field of the primary windings to collapse and once again inducing a separate high voltage charge in the secondary coil, however, this high voltage electron flow will now be in an opposite polarity (e.g. negative).

I have been developing a new method of transmission which employs two transmitters and a centralized receiver (positioned between the two transmitters).
The idea behind this, was to have one transmitter positively charged and the other negatively charged, with the receiver positioned between the two, electrical energy should flow through the air from the positive transmitter, through the receiver and through the air to the negative transmitter!.
A second transformer was introduced and an aerial/antenna was connected to the high negative voltage on the secondary coil.
The primary windings of the second transformer, are connected reverse biased (with respect to the first transformer), this means, that when the secondary of first transformer is positive, the secondary of the second transformer will be negative (similar to resonance!).

The electrons are not perfectly distributed even through both coils (resistances are a little different on the two primaries) but lets assume that they are perfect, this would then mean, that if a single coil was to produce 2000v on the secondary, when another coil is introduced in parallel the voltages will be about half or 1000v (the electrons are shared between the two coils).

Electrons shall flow into transformer C1 in a certain direction but the electron flow through transformer C2 shall be in the opposite direction, this means, that the induced voltages should be of opposite polarity, so while C1 is positive, C2 will be negative and vice versa, the colored terminals on transformers C1 and C2 correspond to the polarity of the terminals of their primary coils (red for positive and blue for negative), the polarity symbols (+ and -) indicate how they are actually wired up (it can be seen that the positive terminal of C2 is actually connected to the negative wire of the power supply).

The receiver R, must be centrally located between the two transmitters T1 and T2, in order to intercept the high voltage electron flow in the atmosphere between the aerials/antennas of the transmitters.
The distance between either transmitter and the receiver should be far enough to prevent sparks (corona discharges) from breaking out from the aerials/antennas or other pieces of the operating equipment, if arcs are visibly jumping from an aerial/antenna to the receiver, then increase the distance between the aerial/antenna and the receiver!.

P1 and P2 are metallic plates, cups or dish like objects that are subjected to the streams of electrons in the surrounding atmosphere and their purpose is to absorb as much electrical energy as possible and both of the metallic objects should be facing the aerials/antennas of each transmitters, on an axis as close to 180 degrees as possible (it should be dead inline), in order to absorb a maximum of potential energy.
Between each metallic object and connected to each, is the device to operate, the device should have one terminal connected to P1 and the other terminal connected to P2 and for maximum effect this device should be an "Alternating Current" device (when large amounts of energy is transmitted, this could typically be a transformer but since we are such small scale, i shall be using rectifiers).

So with the above statements in mind, it is simple to see that the energy is transmitted in a AC format, electrons are rushing through the air in one direction and then another, from aerial/antenna to aerial/antenna.

If were are to consider the atmosphere as nothing but a conductor of incredible resistance, then increasing the voltage would allow for much greater amounts of power to be transmitted, if power is a factor of both voltage and current combined, then the same amount of power can be delivered at a higher voltage but with reduced currents as resistance affects only the currents.

With this in mind i have turned to the Tesla disruptive discharge circuit (seen in patent 454,622US) and the below block diagram displays the circuit i used.
Do not earth/ground any part of this circuit into household power outlets, insulation separating the live mains from the earth wire inside the outlet (or extension lead for the matter) might fail and 10,000v on the mains lines could destroy other components in the house, also if your smart and have installed RCD's (residual current devices) on your meter, these too could be destroyed!.
If you do wish to earth/ground the circuit at some point, use a dedicated earth stake or at least run a wire, free from any source of mains supply, directly to your household earth stake (if you choose to use the household stake, just leave the earth wire laying on the ground (soil/dirt) with at least a meter distance from any source of mains supply).

You may notice at the end of the "Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (Focus on bulbs)" video, that the rate of discharge or transmission has dramatically reduced to a couple discharges a second, this is because the dielectric of the capacitors and diodes in the rectifier were destroyed (the caps and diodes were still able to somewhat function but due to a large amount of loss from leakage across the dielectric and damaged diodes, the charging time was greatly increased) by a short circuit from the secondary winding through the primary winding of the transformer (in the past, i mistakenly made the statement that the primary should have been Earthed/grounded, i have since come to the conclusion that the insulating oil inside the transformer broke down and high voltage currents from the secondary windings were conducted through the primary, connected to which is one end of the secondary winding, also connected in parallel is the 630v capacitor, the high voltage current flowing in the primary would have destroyed the capacitor dielectric, a small portion of this high voltage current would have also arced across the spark gap and flowed into the rectifier, frying the two diodes and the dielectric of the 200v capacitor).
The loud clicking sound that can be heard in Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (w/Speaker) is coming from my computer speakers (that is why the camera pauses for a second on the speakers, if anybody is wondering) and all my computers and other such devices are powered down before i start this circuit.

Turn OFF!, any sensitive electrical equipment, like computers (hubs/switches, kvm's etc), stereos, televisions, game consoles etc, also unplug any aerials leading to televisions, V.C.R's or PC T.V tuner cards... before turning THIS on!.
Insulating the high tension secondary terminal, at first proved to be rather difficult, high voltage currents would breakout between the primary terminals and the high voltage, secondary terminal (the other end of which is connected to the negative terminal of the primary) this current would pass through any amount of plastic or rubber that i could conveniently place on it, so i have since turned to oils as an insulator for these purposes.
I have cut a hole into the bottom of a film canister and glued it over the outside of the insulation already provided around the secondary terminal, for oil i have chosen some of natures own (what better?) and i used olive oil (Vetta, Light Taste, Spanish olive oil) once filled with olive oil, currents can be controlled and by disruptively discharging a 200v 2.4uF capacitance across the primary windings, i have produced 40-50cm long, purple arcs with this (god knows what the voltage must be, it could be measured with a cheap multimeter, by connecting the high voltage terminal to earth with a small value resistor and measure power across that resistor with a high value resistor in series with the meter and then manually calculate the voltage drop).

Links to video's!.
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (Focus on bulbs)


To attain full usage of the transmitted energy on such a small scale the only possible solution that i can envision is a full wave rectifier, the below image depicts a centralized receiving station that encompasses a full wave rectifier in order to use electron flows of both directions between the transmitters.

This circuit employs a full wave rectifier to make use of electron flows of both directions and converts them into a direct current (electron flow with only one direction), which shall power the receiver R in the middle of the rectifier.
You could use L.E.Ds to build your rectifier (at least for this experiment) as you can visually see what is happening, however, due to such high voltages they may not properly block reverse biased currents, they also, may get hot and cook out!.
If you follow the above diagram you should have no problems but always make sure that your diodes are connected correctly or the rectifier may not function correctly, if at all!.

This receiver circuit uses a half wave rectifier, a capacitor C and an automatic switching device D' to facilitate the operation of a small motor or light R!.
The switching device D' will switch on when a certain amount of electrical current has been stored in the capacitor C and discharge the capacitor through the receiver R, once the capacitor has drained all of it's energy (which is pretty quick) the switch D' shall switch off and allow the capacitor C to begin charging once again!.


The following diagram is a more complete description of the circuit, which i employed to investigate wireless transmission of electrical energy.
I also recorded a video of this circuit in operation, powering a 1.8v bulb with a resistance of 3.8Ohms, the bulb periodically flashes as the capacitor disruptively discharges into the transformers on the receiver circuit.

I have since found a disruptive discharge transmitter is not absolute necessary, although a higher voltage maybe achieved, the frequency is diminished massively, however if current is a measure of voltage over resistance and the atmosphere has a resistance which is subject to change (as it ionizes it becomes a better conductor, for instance atmospheric resistance during a thunder storm must fall due to it becoming an ever better conductor as the potential voltage rises, until a "lightning bolt" is formed and the potential voltage is lost and resistance is returned to normal values!), a greater amount of energy could be transferred with the higher voltages of a disruptive discharge transmitter, if the frequency could be maintained or increased significantly.

The astute maybe saying, but the voltage has not been converted down to a safe level for operating the bulb and the voltages are still valued in the hundreds!...
They would be correct and another transformer should be connected between the bulb and the transformer the bulb is currently connected to, i have though, powered a much smaller 1.2v bulb by discharging the capacitor directly across the (high voltage/high resistance) secondary terminals of a (modern) automotive transformer and the bulb connected to the (low voltage/low resistance) primary winding, however this bulb was incredibly small and only a tiny amount of light could be seen emanating from it, i measured the voltage produced and was on the order of around 3v (maximum) but incredibly brief!.

For a reason why i done this (kept voltages in the hundreds)... the capacitor cannot supply enough energy to drive the bulb at it's correct operating voltages.
It is about timing and how long the filament and the capacitance can last at the higher voltages, if the capacitor is to be discharged directly across this (1.8v) bulb it does not seem to destroy the filament (blow the bulb), however a high voltage current breaks out across the terminals inside the bulb (which lead up to the filament), the bulb did glow once but only very slightly and a large amount of power was still lost to a breakout across the terminals.
Lets assume the capacitor discharges at 200v and the bulb has a resistance of 3.8Ohms, the instantaneous current would be 52.632ampere (200 / 3.8 = 52.631578947368421052631578947368), at this current the filament is brought to near destruction but is also brought into incandescence in the process, this high voltage rapidly decreases and therefor so does the current and the filament is saved from over heating and melting down due to the excessive currents produced by the high voltage.

This is in effect what is occurring with the transformers (in the above diagram), however the final voltage supplied to the bulb may vary largely due to resistances, inductive values and frequencies present in the transformers.
Even if the final voltage was identical to what was delivered by the capacitor, to the transformers or the bulb (as in the previous statement of discharging directly, said capacitance across the same bulb), a higher frequency could reduce the arcing between the bulbs terminals, as frequency is increased, the time between points of maximum voltage potential is decreased and the less amount of time higher voltages are present, the less the chance of gas inside the bulb ionizing and conducting, the glow produced in the filament would then be a net effect of the high voltages producing very brief but nearly destructive high currents, the same amount of power would still be transmitted over the same amount of time.
This does not mean the capacitor can be discharged at a greater rate (more times in a given time frame) as that would lead to less voltage supplied to the transformers and therefor less current would be produced across the filament, the illumination of the bulb will begin to decline in intensity as the periods of capacitor discharge increase.

So if the capacitor is disruptively discharged across the primary coils which have less resistance and therefor much easier for the capacitor to discharge into, the entire receiving circuit can be designed with much simpler construction, the secondary windings of said transformer will have induced into them a voltage of considerable proportion and of an incredible frequency, this high voltage current of great frequency must then be converted back down, however it is now much easier to control the higher voltages than to attempt the disruptive discharge across a highly resistive secondary winding with the same capacitor and transformers (for example it is easier to discharge said capacitance across 0.5Ohm resistance than it is to discharge across 5.7KOhm).

I did find that most blown bulbs would not suffice as spark gaps in the receiving apparatus, as they would either have far to much resistance for the capacitor to arc across or they would begin to leak a considerable amount of current once a certain voltage was reached in the capacitor and this would eliminate the capacitor from reaching a value at which a disruptive discharge could take place, the current would seem to leak across the glass or other materials (be it the gas or otherwise) inside the bulb which hold the terminals in place and the leakage would be intensified greatly if the material had been carbonized or had a layer of carbonized material deposited upon it, most likely caused from destruction of the terminals and gaseous substances inside the bulb during excessive arcing (e.g. disruptive discharging).
I was instead forced to make my own air spark gap out of a piece of wood and two nails held extremely close together, the air gap in this spark gap is incredibly small and i would need a feeler gauge to measure it, it is in the order of a few thou tolerance and is extremely difficult to determine a gap at all with the naked eye! (check out the digi pics of the spark gap on myspace.com/teslaenergy, SkyDrive and YouTube!.).

Links to video's!.
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (1)
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (2)
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (3)
Wireless Atmospheric Transmission of Electrical Energy (4)

Ideally though, you do not want conductors connecting both transmitters as in the above image, that more or less defeats the purpose of wireless transmission, why would you conduct the energy past the location of the receiver.
A much desired method is to have two distantly located and independently powered transmitter stations which are resonantly tuned to each other, metallic conductors between the two transmitters (but not connected to) will facilitate a less resistive path for the high voltage atmospheric electron flow and as i have shown in the videos (and as Mr Tesla said 200 years ago) a capacitor which is connected via these conductors and to at least one aerial/antenna can be charged by the voltage difference that is produced at different locations in the atmosphere and subjected upon the aerial or antenna.

Alternatively, if only a single transmitter station can be employed, then the other terminal of the high voltage secondary winding must be freed from either it's connection to earth/ground or the primary windings and instead lead by a conductor to the second aerial/antenna as in the image below.




The switching device that i have chosen to use on all of my high voltage circuits is nothing more than an automotive relay, these are usually rated at 12v 30 or 40A, although a relay could be used from almost anything! or you could choose to make your own (i am going to be seeking less resistive relays very soon).
On the underside of one of these relays should be four or five numbered terminals and you will need to make two permanent connections between these in order to make a high frequency self-operating switch, basically you use the normally open, magnetically activated reed (switch) to short out the coil that created the magnetism to operate the switch and once the coil has been shorted out, power is diverted across the reed, away from the coil and the coil demagnetizes.
Numbered terminals on the relay are typically as follows, 85 and 86 are the terminals that lead into the coil and terminals 30 and 87 constitute the terminals for the reed or switch and connections must be made from 86 to 30 and from 85 to 87 or in any manner as to arrive at the same ends as described before.
Below is a simplified animated image of what happens during the operation of self-operating relay and a transformer coil.

The supply could aswell be an alternating current!.

For a couple of bonuses to using relays in this manner... they are not only cheap and inexpensive but you can control the speed at which they operate and thusly the frequency of the transformer by using a magnet placed near the coil and moving it around to speed up or slow down the rate of frequency.
Frequencies of upto 250Mhz can be made from an automotive relay and a good magnet, however their are limits and at this speed the relay is likely to stick as the reed is only moving a distance of a couple of thou and does not get time to return to it's resting position, in a safe general practice, frequencies between 180 and 200Mhz should be expected when the magnet has been placed in the correct position.
Below is a simplified animated image of how a magnet can effect the operation of self-operating relay and a transformer coil.

This image is best viewed on Mozilla Firefox (A better variation in speed with relation to the magnet can be seen in mozilla)!.
The supply could aswell be an alternating current!.

During the time the reed switch closes and opens, the transformer completes at least one main cycles and the most powerful surge of current from the supply (to the transformer) is at the instant the switch opens and current flows through the relay coil.
At first instant a small resistance is between the transformer and the supply but as self-induced voltages are created in the relay coil, the resistance rises and current is diminished between the transformer and the supply (this constitutes one complete cycle for the transformer), a magnetic field has built up surrounding the relay coil by this time and acts upon the reed switch, when this switch closes a current flows from the relay coil across the switch and has a resistive effect on currents from the supply (attempting to cross the switch in the opposite direction).
Upon the switch closing a deterioration of the self-induced voltages that existed in the relay coil begin, this effectively short circuits and demagnetizes the relay coil, the reed switch opens and current once again flows through the relay coil and returns the circuit back to it's original condition!.


Single wire bulbs or those redesigned to function according to those as described my Mr Nikola Tesla in many of his patents and in particular, U.S patent 514,170 for Incandescent Electric Light can be constructed quite simply as well.
I have merely taken small clear Christmas tree bulb type lights (small 12v bulbs) and twisted the two terminals together and connected them as one into the circuit and is termed as device B in the following diagram.

C3 is a coil that operates independantly to the coils C2 and C4, this was added as a point of self interest to test randomness in the natural world (which path will the electron flow take?).
I have also done similar with the terminals of a 240v 15w fluorescent energy saving bulb, by hacksawing the bottom off, then used a 35mm still photography film canister which i had melted two small holes into (for the connecting wires of the bulb to protrude through) and glued the fluroscent bulb to the top of.
Connecting the two protruding wires (from the 240v fluorescent bulb) is a single wire that connects both wires of the fluorescent bulb together and has had the insulation removed from the center to allow a single wire connection that will then apply to both wires protruding from the film canister.
Additionally, on both of the wires that are protruding from the film canister (on opposite or either side) are connected the before mentioned 12v Christmas tree light bulbs, this means there are effectively three bulbs (one 240v and two 12v) connected together as one single bulb.

It can be noticed to pulse with a fluorescent green illumination and a video of which has been posted to Youtube and a link to which is given below.
Links to video's!.
Single Wire Bulb 2 (with audio)
The Christmas tree or 12v bulb on the left of the 240v fluro can be seen to glow (or pulse, note possible x-ray due to tungsten filament) and only one wire is connecting as shown in the above diagram.

Links :
Wikipedia - Wardenclyffe Tower
Tesla Science
Google Earth
Scientific American
CNET's Download.com
Old Versions
Bushnell

myspace.com/teslaenergy