Electricity can be explained with analogies, like hydraulic (liquid, e.g. water) systems.
Imagine two taps that are two feet from ground level, one tap turned full on and has lots of water gushing out, the second tap will only drip every couple of seconds, the velocity of the water falling to ground can be thought of
as the voltage and the amount of water flowing can be considered the amount of current flowing.
From the above analogy, two things should have been realized, because both taps are at the same height, water from both taps will hit the ground at the same speed and time but the dripping tap has much less water flowing from it,
so this of course means, even though both taps/batteries will have water/electrons flowing from them at the same speed/volts, one tap/battery has a greater amount of water/electrons flowing out, so it becomes quiet obvious, that a
larger amount of flowing water/electrons has a greater deal of energy to do work with!.
Electrons are sub-atomic particles and are fundamental forces of nature that are responsible for creating magnetic fields and make or are, what we call electricity.
The basic or old view of an atom consists of three parts, neutrons, protons and electrons, the protons and neutrons make up the atom's nucleus or center and electrons orbit the atom much like satellites orbit earth.
Electrons are negatively charged, the protons in the atomic center are positively charged and electrons are attracted to the nucleus, just like gravity attracts an object passing a planet, the electron is in a balanced state
and will not collide with the atomic center.
The electron/proton count of the atom is normally even but if an atomic structure has an excess of electrons, it is said to be negatively charged and if the atomic structure lacks electrons, it is positively charged, if a
positive atom and a negative atom are connected by whatever means, electrons will jumps from the negatively charged atom to the positively charged atom, until the electron count on both atoms are identical or at least balanced
In conventional current flow, electrons always travel from positive to negative or earth/ground (and i quote Mr Nikola Tesla "Ground, this being the most convenient way of obtaining negative electricity"), this is the old view
and scientific study has shown that the electron is actually a negative charge which flows from negative to positive and is now called electron flow, this means batteries flow from negative to positive and it also means Mr
Tesla should have said "Ground, this being the most convenient way of obtaining positive electricity", it may become a bit confusing to the novice.
Ions are merely charged atoms!...
Atoms normally have protons, neutrons and electrons, the amount of electrons and the amount of protons are usually identical and the atom is electrically neutral.
An atom that has an excess or lack of electrons is called an ion, this atom is free to give away or take in one or more electrons, this gives it an electric charge and that means we can do interesting things with it, like fire
it at 99% the speed of light head on into another ion, traveling in the opposite direction at 99% the speed of light and create miniature black holes!.
That is why an atom with an electric charge deserves it own title!...
Ionization is the process of turning atoms into ions!...
Ionization is normally done with a direct current, as an alternating current would replace the electrons that were stripped.
Capacitors store their charge by ionizing a sheet of aluminum foil or similar conductive material, by forcing electrons into the outer electron orbital's of atoms within the conductive structure, the conductive material gains
an electric field, this field forces electrons out of another conductive structure (usually of identical material) which is separated from the first by a insulating material called the dielectric.
This process stores a net charge that is identical to what was fed into the capacitor.
Ionization may not always be so benign as this, consider a DC voltage of extremely appreciable voltage, such voltages under the correct conditions can ionize the atmosphere and create horrendous explosions that could for
instance, kill whomever should be unfortunate enough to be within the vicinity (just look at lightning for example)!.
Electrons orbit around the atomic nucleus on varying levels, like satellites orbit the earth at different heights above sea level!.
The levels are called shells and the number of which depend upon what type of atom is in question.
Electrons in the outer shell orbit around the largest radius, are the furthest away from the atomic nucleus, feel less atomic or electric attraction toward the atomic nucleus and thusly are the easiest to remove from the atomic
structure, leaving the atom ionized.
Electrons on the inner most shell orbit around the shortest radius, are the closest to the atomic nucleus, feel the greatest attraction toward the atomic nucleus and thusly are hardest electrons to remove from the atomic
Electrons can also change which shell they orbit in, jumping up or down shells and when they do, the atomic structure shall emit radiation in some form or another, this process has been taken advantage of in L.E.D production in
order to achieve brighter lights (the atoms within the semi-conducting material, emit radiation in the form of visible waveforms called photons).
An E-Field is an electric field that can act upon charges from a distance without transferring any electrons.
More specifically an e-field is generated by ions and can be noticed as the ionic attraction or repulsion (see "Static Electricity" further down the page for more on ionic attraction/repulsion).
The e-fields can act upon charges and move them around by either attraction or repulsion, e-fields can have either a positive or negative polarity or they could be alternating between the two in an alternating waveform (see
"Sine Waves" for more on waves).
E-Fields can be quite large and are easily generated, one could quite easily fill a 3m x 3m x 5m cube (or room) with a 12v supply and a good transformer.
When under the correct conditions, e-fields can cause ionization to occur and there has been suggestions that it could possibly do damage to atoms/ions within the body and on the DNA lattice (but do not quote me on that).
Capacitors rely on e-fields to store their charge, consider a single lonely electron that has been deposited on the positive terminal of a capacitor, this lowly electron will generate an e-field that reaches through the
dielectric (an insulator material that keeps the charges separate) and pushes another "individual" single electron out of the negative terminal, all whilst keeping the first electron on the positive plate.
Potential difference, is the amount of difference in energy, between two points or objects, otherwise it's just a fancy way of saying voltage and the analogy is based around pressure but could be explained a number of ways, heat
is one that instantly comes to mind!.
The idea is, imagine two glass/metallic, air tight chambers, that are connected by a tap, one chamber is of high vacua and the other has been pressurized to some extent, the difference in air pressure can be thought of as the
So lets say, that the vacuum chamber is at -10psi (negative ten pound per square inch) and the pressurized chamber is at 10psi (positive ten pound per square inch), the difference in pressure between the two tanks is 20psi and
that is potential difference.
Now if one was to open the tap, a massive rush of air pressure would flow from the pressurized chamber, into the vacuum chamber, high pressure will always flow to lower pressure areas and the pressure flow will continue until
each chamber is at identical pressures, the pressure in both tanks will balance each other out but while a flow is occurring a fan or wheel, could be incorporated to make use or visual confirmation, of this flow of air
From the above statement, one should be able to see how this applies to electricity, a battery has a pressurized or positive pole and a vacuum or negative pole, when wire or a circuit connects the two, pressure or
rather electrons, will flow from high potential (positive) to low potential (negative), this will continue until both poles are at the same pressure or better yet to say, until no difference in voltage is present!.
Interestingly enough, this means that a flat battery hasn't lost any electrons at all!, there is just no pressure/voltage difference between positive and negative!.
Polarity and the voltage signs.
Polarity basically means the direction of the voltage signs (+ and -), if a battery is put into something the wrong way, it would be incorrect polarity.
It is called polarity because the positive and negative terminals could be thought of as poles, like the north and south pole of earth (earth has a magnetic polarity!).
Two magnets that are facing north to north will push each other away because the magnetic polarities are incorrect and the same applies to electricity, if two positive terminals are connected the electrical forces would repel
each other, just like the magnets do!.
Forward and reversed bias.
Forward and reversed bias is almost the same as what has been described in the polarity description.
Basically, if a battery is put into something the wrong way, it would be reversed biased.
For instance, a DC motor that has the positive terminal of a battery, connected to the negative terminal of the motor would be reversed biased (this means the motor will spin in a particular direction), whereas if the negative
terminal on the battery is connected to the negative terminal of the motor (in the motor-battery circuit), it would be forward biased and the motor would spin in the other direction.
Resistance is the opposition to electron flow through a wire or conductor.
Each instant that a unit of e.m.f is applied to a conductor, it will act upon electrons within, moving them here and there but in the one general direction (toward the positive terminal), each time an electron moves from one
atom to another, the chances of it combining with an impurity or ion is incredible and due to the fact that the ion will not want to give this electron up easily, it will take another unit of force to get it moving again.
After a certain length of wire the resistance becomes so great, due to the increased amount of ions within the wire, the voltage and current will drop accordingly.
Resistance can also be generated by opposing forces, lets say that we have a voltage producing a current flow from left to right in a piece of wire, if one was to supply a voltage that wants to produce a current flow from right
to left, it will cause a resistive effect against the first current.
If the left to right biased current is 1 ampere (one volt through, one ohm) and the reversed biased current is 0.25 ampere (one quarter volt, through, one ohm), than the resulting current flow would be 0.75 ampere (three
quarter volt, through one ohm).
The reversed biased voltage supplies a force that will counter the forward biased voltage and because voltage is the "force" that moves electrons in a current, then the drop in forward biased voltage will cause a drop in
forward biased current.
If the reversed biased voltage is a greater force then the forward biased voltage, then currents will flow in a reverse biased flow, imagine two cars driving head on into a collision, the forward biased car is traveling at
100mph and the reverse biased car is traveling at 200mph, after the collision (minus masses, friction and such) the forward biased car would be traveling in a reverse biased direction, because the force applied or generated
by the other car in the collision was greater then what the forward biased car could produce, therefor the majority of the energy is transferred into this car and supplies enough "force" to move it in the opposite direction.
Voltage is said to be the pressure that applies the force necessary to create a flow of electrons.
Electrical pressure is measured in volts and a volt is the amount of pressure required to force 62400,000,000,000,000,000 (6.24 x 10*18 or sixty two million, four hundred thousand, trillion)
electrons per second (1 ampere), through a resistance of 1 Ohm.
When large amounts of force are applied to electrical conductors, the resistance falls accordingly and this allows the human race to transmit electricity over extremely vast distances, to power domiciles of residents in a
social community and the losses due to resistance is said to be negligible or minimal.
This is why we see 750+ kilovolt-ampere transformers on power poles around towns and cities, if the total power is a factor of both the voltage and current and the resistance is an impedance to the current, then the same amount
of power can be transmitted at high voltage with negligible losses and then later converted down to a lower voltage, with a greater current that we can do work with.
Current is the actual flow of electrons.
Like water through a hose, electrons flow like a current through a wire, the amount of current that flows is dependant upon the applied voltage and the resistance of said wire.
High values of current can quickly heat up the material through which it flows and this is how most elements work in stoves and kettles, excess currents can quickly destroy the materials through which they flow and that is
why fuses blow during a short circuit (the rapid rise in current, heats up and destroys the wire in the fuse, thus breaking the circuit and protecting against a current overload!).
Currents produce magnetic fields and that makes the general electron rather useful, consider your computers hard disk, tiny electromagnets on the read/write head, align atoms within the disk platter in a certain direction,
one direction being equal to 1 (one) and all other directions are considered 0 (zero).
The nervous systems of living creatures have measurable currents in the ion channels and facilitate communication amongst various organs in the creature, the brain of course, is most probably the main one.
Current is measured in a unit called amperes which will be described next.
Amperes are a unit of measurement and is a relation of current and time...
The ampere is a measurement of the amount of electrons passing any one point in a conductor and is defined by the voltage over the resistance.
Technically 1 ampere is said to equal the current flowing in two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross sectional area, when separated one meter apart in free air and producing a force between them of
2 x 10-7 newton per meter length of conductor.
Ohms law states "The current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional to the resistance.", any increase to the force will cause an increase in the
1 Ampere is equal to a flow of 62,400,000,000,000,000,000 (6.24 x 10x18 or sixty two million, four hundred thousand, trillion) electrons per second at that particular voltage!.
And just so you can get a better idea of such a large number, consider this :
||sixty two million, four hundred thousand, trillion.
||seventy six million, four hundred and thirteen thousand, six hundred and seventy four trillion, one hundred and twenty four billion, one hundred and sixteen thousand million, one hundred and forty two.
Is the attraction or repulsion felt by charged bodies of poor conductors!.
Static electricity is a term given to a current flow that was produced when two or more dissimilar materials underwent a stage of frictional contact.
When two dissimilar materials are rubbed together, providing that the correct kinds of materials are used, an imbalance of charge will be produced, this potential difference can easily exceed many thousands of volts.
The charge imbalance is caused by electrons transferring from one material to another, leaving one material positively charged and making the other negatively charged and because the materials that store these charges within the
static generator are poor conductors, the electrons are trapped there.
Mainly we call it static electricity, because a good conductor would not allow the electrons to remain trapped, "static" and would instead, arc out or rapidly drain away.
We can easily see that poor conductors retain a "static" charge imbalance quite easily, consider a piece of polyethylene that has a static charge on it, when a piece of "uncharged" paper is brought into close proximity of the
charged object, the paper will be attracted to the object and can possibly be held there or stuck to the object without external forces.
A good conductor would transfer it's charge imbalance immediately and any potential differences would be lost, the paper would not ever stick, at all!.
These effects are caused by atoms within the materials becoming ionized, it is the ions that produce the effect and not the act of ionization but once ionized, the low conductivity of the material will keep the charges separate
and only allow electrons to replace the imbalance in electron-proton counts very slowly.
The material can only keep the charges static for a given length of time, due to the high voltage e-field present on the material, the tiniest of electron flows would be occurring and replacing the imbalance of charge, so i
guess static does not really exist (it's only ionic forces) and there is still a flow of dynamic electricity but the combined effects with poor conductors creates a hair raising experience.
Static generators are always producing a current (if a circuit is connected to it), no matter how small and they are expected be in the milliampere range (depending on size of generator).
The static generator is the only type of generator that does not contain a complete circuit inside itself, the materials that the generator are made from are not conductive and of impeccable resistance, the flow of electrons
through the circuit only replaces those electrons that were lost from one material to the other.
Dynamic electricity is the power produced by an electron flow through a conductor experiencing an electromotive force.
Dynamic electricity as opposed to static electricity, is a constant flow of electrons and when the applied e.m.f is removed, electron flow stops and atoms return to their neutral states.
Currents from dynamic electricity are generally much greater than static electricity, the general household main supplies (in australia) are 240v 10A circuits and a special 15A circuit for arc welders and such (although not
every house will have a 15A circuit).
In a dynamic electric generator/alternator, a set of coils are spun at great velocity past stationary magnets to produce an e.m.f in the coil, when a load is connected to the terminals of the coil, a current flows!.
The coils, normally within a few millimeters of the magnet and passing through the magnetic field at an angle of 90 degrees, are placed under an e.m.f by the magnetic field acting upon charges in relative motion (the electrons
appear stationary to coils but because the coils are moving, the magnetic fields see the electrons as moving but don't see the actual coil of wire).
Like a static generator, a dynamic generator will only replace charges that were lost, however, in a dynamic generator, there is only one material that becomes charged (the coil of wire), the magnetic field pushes the electrons
toward one terminal leaving the atoms left behind ionized and because the e.m.f is constant, the electrons can't simply flow backward to balance out the difference in charge, so like the static generator, which has two
materials that become charged, the dynamic generator has two terminals that become charged, the major difference in a dynamic generator, is the two charges exist in the one material.
Current flow through a dynamic generator is much greater than that of a static generator, because the static generator is made from "non conductive" or poorly conductive material and that means very little current flow due to
the incredible resistances, whereas dynamic generators have a lower resistance to current flow and therefor allows a greater flow of current to occur (all parts of a circuit offer resistance to current flow, this includes the
generator or alternator).
It was previously stated that the e.m.f is constant and the electrons can't simply flow backward to balance out the difference in charge, this is only true for direct current generators (depending on construction, we call them
generators for short), the electron flow in the conductor of alternating current generators can actually flow back into the conductor at some point, alternators (for short) will also push electrons in the opposite direction
through the conductor as the coil passes through the magnetic field in the opposite way.
Assuming electron flow in the wire was from right to left, when the e.m.f rises and falls in the wire on one half of a complete rotation (a rotation of the axle is termed a cycle and is mirrored in the electron flow), the
alternator will supply an e.m.f that then forces the electrons through the wire from left to right and the difference between a typical generator and an alternator is in the contacts (also called brushes or bushes) to the coils,
a simple alternator uses two slip rings, one dedicated to each terminal of the coil which convey the voltage, a generator however, has two separate stationary contacts, that the wires must share, so even though their is an
alternating voltage in the coils of a generator only the positive terminal shall bear upon the positive contact during rotations of the axle or armature, this applies to the negative terminal and contact as well.
Electromotive Force (e.m.f).
An electromotive force is the pressure measured in volts that forces electrons through a conductor.
The electromotive force or e.m.f is the energy that forces electrons to move through a conductor and is measured in volts, so for 200 volts, you could say, 200 volts of electromotive force!.
This force can be created a number of ways, in a dynamic electric machine, the force is normally created by magnetic induction (magnets moved passed coils in a close proximity, at high speeds), another way is piezo electric
crystals, when abrupt pressure is applied to these unique crystalline structures, a huge e.m.f is generated across the face of the crystal that can easily exceed 10kv and yet another method of e.m.f generation is described under
the "Static Electricity" analogy above.
That is why a generator is named as such, it generates an e.m.f at a voltage dependant upon the speed at which the generator is spun.
An alternator does the same thing but the polarities of e.m.f voltages present at the terminals are constantly swapping, while a generator is usually referred to a direct current machine.
A sine wave is a representation of voltage and/or current plotted against time on a graph.
A typical graph consists of only two axes, X and Y, both of which start at a common point marked as 0 (zero) and extend out to some point, at a 90 degree angle from each other.
The X axis is voltage and/or current graded in millivolts/milliamps, volt/amps or some other increment of electrical measure, while Y is time, graded in milliseconds, seconds or some other increment of time.
When a sign wave is plotted onto a graph, it always starts at some point on the X axis and at the 0 position on the Y axis (assuming the Y axis is time) and constantly progresses away from zero, it will always start at 0 (zero)
time because that is when the observation or recording started and can never go back, because that would imply that you have reversed time and when back to the past.
The line or sine wave that has been plotted on the graph may fluctuate up and down on the X axis and that indicates the changes in voltage/current, the time axis never changes (for some reason, time only goes in one direction).
A DC sine wave of constant voltage is simply a straight line, however, if a DC voltage that is switched rapidly on and off were plotted as a sine wave, it would rise and fall creating square edged patterns where the voltage was
on and where it was off, this type of wave is a rectangular pulse wave.
DC sine waves never drop below the 0 point on the X axis unless the voltage has been reversed, AC voltages however, are constantly switching their polarities and therefor their sign waves are able to extend below the 0 point on
the X axis and begin incrementing down another axis normally called X-, the time axis still progresses constantly toward the right and cannot reverse.
A Sinusoidal waveform, is an alternating sine wave that fluctuates between a maxima on the X axis and a maxima on the X- axis with a constant and uniform rate of change in the voltage, this waveform has no real straight line, it
is constantly changing over time (over Y).
A few types of sine waves
Transformers are the most efficient electrical device ever created, with large transformers, the efficiencies are in the 99% range.
A typical transformer consists of one long thin strand of copper wire wound around an iron structure, a second, short but rather thick strand of copper wire is also wound onto the iron structure.
Electrical energy that is fed into either one of the coils is converted into magnetic energy within the iron medium, this is then transferred back to the second coil of wire, the first coil into which the power was fed is called
the primary coil or primary windings and the second coil is naturally called the secondary coil or secondary windings.
The amount of turns (the amount of times the wire is looped around the iron structure) that the thin wire makes, is normally many thousands of turns and the thick wire usually has only a couple of hundred turns.
The iron structure is referred to as the core and is not always a single solid piece of iron but rather hundreds, if not thousands of individual sheets of high quality silicon steel, the reason for this, is to reduce the loss of
power produced by eddy currents and hysteresis in the core, these losses are known as iron losses (see "Eddy Currents" for more on eddy currents and see "Hysteresis" for more on
Transformers can normally be reversed in operation, that is, the secondaries can have the power fed into them and the primaries are then used to take power off the transformer.
In order to operate correctly, a transformer requires a constant change in voltage and therefor a constant change in current through the primary windings, so if an alternating current cannot be supplied, a direct current must be
rapidly either switched on and off or to make resistance rise and fall in series between the supply and the transformer.
Some high voltage transformers are filled with noxious oils that are under a small amount of pressure, care must be taken if you choose to open one of these types of transformers!, the oil is used as an insulator and as coolant.
To generate a voltage, the secondary coil of wire is set into relative motion through a magnetic field, the transformer does this by mutual induction (see "Induction" for more on induction), the primary,
secondary and the core are all stationary but the primary winding has a constantly varying level of current flowing through it (like an alternating current), the magnetic field produced by this current is therefor set into
motion and cuts through the secondary coil, producing a voltage in it.
Certain oil filled transformers can get their core that hot, that they will no longer produce a voltage on the secondary terminals, the heat that is produced by the core becomes that great, that it demagnetizes the core and
it will have to cool down, before it will begin to work again, this can be damaging to the coils!.
Flux is a term given to the field lines created by magnetism.
Magnetic fields can be seen by sprinkling iron shavings onto a piece of paper/glass and placing a magnet underneath, the shavings will align themselves according to the field lines of the magnet.
Flux lines are the individual lines that are produced and normally extend out from one of the poles on the magnet and loop around to the other pole.
Flux density is how deep the lines are or how far they spread out from the magnet.
Flux lines are measured in webers, a weber is 10x8 flux lines and flux density is measured in teslas, a tesla is one weber per square meter (Teslas = Webers/Square Meters).
Induction is the act of inducing into an object or material, a desired effect, in electrical terms it is the act of creating a voltage by external forces.
Like... The induction of alcohol into their systems, induced an inebriated effect.
Capacitors use electrostatic induction in order to create their charges, negative charges deposited on the negative plates, induce positive charges on the positive plates.
Induction is usually associated with transformers (see "Transformers" for more on transformers), a current is induced into the core by the primary windings and this in return induces a voltage in the
Mutual induction means the current applied to the primary windings, links both the primary and secondary windings via a magnetic circuit (the current flowing in the core creates this magnetic circuit) and is mutual to both
windings, although several things are happening to the mutual flux in the core, it is assumed that the value of this flux remains constant and any rise in secondary current means a rise in primary current.
Inductive relation means the secondary current is dependant upon the primary current, changes in either the primary supply current or the load on the secondary will effect each other by the mutual induction that links them.
Inductive reactance is the amount that an object can resist change to current flow, reactance is therefor measured in ohms and is dependant upon how frequently the current changes.
Reactance is dependant upon the factors that effect the self-inductance, the changes in applied current induce a self-induced voltage generated by a change in current through the inductor, which opposes the applied current.
Inductive reactance is measured in ohms and only applies to that particular frequency!.
Self-inductance, is the ability of a conductor or coil to produce an e.m.f within itself from it's own magnetic field, of course this magnetic field is being generated by a supply source but the self-induced e.m.f is generated by
the conductor or coil alone and the inclusion of a iron core into such a self-inductive coil would greatly increase the magnetic field generated and thusly increase the self-induced voltage.
A conductor that has been wound into a coil has a greater self-inductive value, this is because the magnetic field generated by any one part of the wire not only cuts through itself but other parts of the wire surrounding it.
Inductor is the term given to any form of conductive material or object that has a highly self-inductive nature.
Alternating currents are said to lag behind the voltage by 90 degrees in an inductor and for a further description...
When a coil or inductor is connected to a alternating voltage supply, rapid increases in the supply voltage causes the current from the supply to drop as the self-induced e.m.f in the coil or inductor opposes the current flow
(like resistance) from the supply, however, as the alternating voltage supply begins to level out (or slow down the rate of change) in e.m.f, the self-induced voltage (resistance) in the coil or inductor falls accordingly thus
increasing current flow from supply source.
At the first instant when an e.m.f is connected to the coil, current flow from the supply will be at a maximum but however, since the inductor is changing the rate of current flow through itself from 0 (zero) flow to the value
of the supply source, this will cause a cascade effect, the sudden change in current flow through the inductor induces a self-induced voltage in the inductor, which in return opposes the current from the supply source and thus
a decrease of current will occur and therefor a rise of the self-induced voltage, which again decreases the current from the supply and the cycle continues until no current is flowing!, all of these things happen
simultaneously and because current is related to voltage by resistance, by the time the current has dropped to nothing (at 90 degrees of the cycle) the supply voltage will be at it's maximum and so will the self-induced
Based on this image a description is given below
90 degrees into the cycle, the supply voltage and the self-induced voltage will be at their maximum but at any point between 90 and 180 degrees, both voltages will be decreasing and this leads to an increase of current from
The increased current, now flows in the opposite direction and creates a magnetizing force (demagnetizing) that will cause the self-induced voltage to decrease and at 180 degrees of the alternating cycle, both voltages have
dropped to their absolute minimum, the supply current levels out at it's maximum as the voltage from the supply diminishes and the self-induced voltages are therefor reduced by the gradual changes in supply current.
Between the degrees of 180 and 270, the supply current has overcome all magnetizing effects and once again begins to create a magnetizing force that will cause the self-induced voltage to increase and impede the electron
current flow from the supply, the supply voltage and self-induced voltages are rising in opposite polarity and finally between 270 and 360 degrees both voltages start at a maximum but are collapsing, causing the supply
current to increase and begin to overcome the magnetizing force (to demagnetize).
When the self-induced voltage collapses it keeps the current flowing in that direction but degrades over time as the self-induced voltage deteriorates, the current is then influenced by the supply voltage and the supply
attempts to bring it back into phase but becomes impeded by a rise in self-induced voltage caused by the change in current flow.
As the value of current rises away from 0 (zero), energy is used to create a magnetic field and when the current falls back to 0 (zero) the magnetic field collapses and returns it's energy to the supply, this can be seen in the
above image, if you follow the purple power wave in the second cycle, it can be seen that the power is both taken from and returned back to the supply, power is a magnitude of both current and voltage combined.
Electrically, resonance is the holy grail of alternating currents, a finely tuned circuit in which power is constantly changing state while being consumed and replaced.
An alternating current machine is constantly reversing polarities, this means that the electron flow moves in one direction and then in another and can therefor have some interesting effects.
In a resonant circuit power oscillates (swings to and fro) between the inductor and the capacitor at an incredible frequency, very little power is required from the supply source, as the inductor generates a current flow of it's
own when the magnetic field collapses, this charges the capacitor, which in return, will supply the voltage required to create a current flow in the inductor, when the magnetic field of the inductor has dissipated, this current
flow generates a new magnetic field that will collapse when the current flow has stopped!.
The two swing back and forth like this, from an electrostatic potential stored in the capacitor, to a magnetic field stored in an inductor, the capacitor supplies the voltage to the inductor and the inductor supplies the
current to the capacitor.
Current and voltage are related, it is the voltage that causes a current to flow but due to opposing forces in a circuit, the two may not always appear as a maximum potential at the same point in time, for instance, alternating
currents in an inductor lags behind the voltage by 90 degrees (see "Induction" for more on inductors and reactance) and capacitors react in a similar way to inductors on an alternating voltage, the
difference is the current now leads the voltages, that is current will appear as a maximum potential before the voltage.
When the two are combined and tuned to unity (a power factor of 1, one and see "Power Factor" for more on the power factor), supply current and voltage are brought into phase and the circuit behaves as
a resistive circuit, a low net value of reactance, means it requires very little supply current to produce the same effects in the circuit.
Alternating voltage current and self-induced voltage sine wave of an inductor
Sine wave of alternating voltage, current and charge stored in a capacitor
Both capacitive reactance and inductive reactance are tuned to identical values and the energy stored in the capacitor as an electrostatic field, on one half of the cycle (wave), will appear in the magnetic field of the inductor
on the last half of the cycle (wave), this applies for both series and parallel resonant circuits but different effects occur in each type of circuit during the energy or state transfer (from magnetic to electrostatic).
Series resonant circuits are synonymous with the secondaries in tesla disruptive discharge circuits, impedance is low in a series resonance and actual resistance can also be quite low, this leads to massive currents and a
certain amount of care must be taken when dealing with such circuits, the large current values are capable of creating explosive amounts of damage to the circuit and it's surrounds!.
Voltages generated in a series resonant circuit can be many times the supplied voltage and due protection must be given to the circuit to insulate such forces, however, series resonance is still used in frequency filtering as
the capacitive reactance is only equal to the inductive reactance at one particular frequency and all other frequencies will therefor encounter a larger impedance.
Parallel resonant circuits are one in the same as the primaries in a tesla disruptive discharge circuit, when capacitive reactance is tuned to identical values as the inductive reactance, current flows between the two are
identical but 180 degrees out of phase, due to the resistance in the inductor, only a small amount of supply power is needed to keep the current oscillating between magnetic field in the inductor and electrostatic field in the
Normally the primary coil in the parallel resonant circuit is a short pipe coiled into very few turns (less than 20 turns), this is to reduce the actual resistance of the inductor and improve the inductive reactance, pipe is
used to reduce eddy currents caused by the appreciably high frequencies generated by the disruptive discharge of a high voltage capacitor.
Power factor is measurement used to determine the actual power consumed in an AC circuit.
Circuits that contain both the properties of resistance and reactance, which operate on an alternating current cannot have their true wattage's calculated, until the power factor has been calculated.
Any given circuit that is operating on an alternating supply current has the following three components of power...
1.) Apparent power, measured in volt-amperes (VA) and is the value of both the supply current and voltage.
2.) True power, measured in watts and is the actual amount of power consumed from the supply, which is required to create the effect on the load, power is only consumed when both the supply voltage and current are biased
with the same polarity.
3.) Reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive (VAR) and is a measure of how much power is returned to the supply and not consumed by the circuit, VAR power does not do any work in creating the desired effects on the
The power factor is the cosine of the angle in lag or lead between the voltage and current (the cosine of the degree of lag or lead in the sine wave), the true power is a multiple of both the volt-amperes (apparent power) and the
If a voltmeter is reading 240v and an ammeter is reading 8.1A, then the volt-ampere factor is 1944VA, to calculate the power factor, suppose we have wattmeter with a reading of 1962w, then power factor is equal to 0.99
(1944 / 1962 = 0.9908).
Power factor is the measure used to determined the true wattage used by the circuit, the wattage is a product of voltage, current and power factor, a 250v source supplying 10A load, with a power factor of 0.4 equals 1000w
(250 x 10 x 0.4 = 1000).
Power factor is sometimes displayed as a percentage value, a factor of 0.99 would be 99%, a factor of 0.4 would be 40%, 1 (one) is 100% and 0 (zero) is 0%.
The greater the power factor value, the less the supply needs to provide power for the circuit, as the value of the power factor comes closer to 1 (one) the current becomes more "in phase" with the supply voltage, this makes
the circuit behave as a purely resistive one and no amount power is returned to the supply, all power is therefor consumed by the load and used to do work!.
Low power factors require larger amounts of current from the supply (apparent power) in order to create the same amount of work done (true power) in the load, this leads to increased conductor, transformer and fuse sizes, better
switching gear must be used and decreases in alternator performance and voltages along the wire, therefor all of these things combine, to contribute to a much greater expenses for doing the same amount of work in the load, that
could be done at a power factor of 1 for less cost.
In a series circuit, the power factor is the product of the resistance over impedance, resistance is first calculated in DC and then impedance is calculated in AC, for example, an inductor that draws 20A from a 240v DC supply
has a resistance of 12 Ohm and the same inductor on 240v AC draws 10A of current, the impedance calculates to 24 Ohm, so the power factor for this circuit is 0.5 (12/24 = 0.5).
An eddy current is an electron flow that consumes power and releases heat, which degrades overall performance.
Eddy currents are normally observed in the core of transformers (see "Transformers" for more on the core), as the magnetic field cuts through the core, a voltage is produced in each lamination and a
current flows around the closed loop of each laminate, this is the eddy current and due to the resistance of the laminates a certain amount of power, measured in watt's is wasted.
The current that flows in the core consumes power from the entire circuit and is lost due to the heat created by the heavy currents flowing through a resistance in each laminate, which in return heats the entire core.
If the laminates could be made with 100% (one hundred percent) resistance, no power would be lost due to the eddy currents, this is practically impossible though, as the core needs to transfer a magnetic field around itself,
what is needed, is some sort of material that gains a magnetic property but does not allow any e.m.f to be induced within itself or allow electrons to travel though itself (some sort of electric insulator), however, the
expenses of keeping the core at such values could become far to costly on large scale production.
Alternating currents of great frequency can cause eddy currents in a single strand of wire, this forces the applied e.m.f to travel on the surface of the wire, as the self-induced currents in the wire oppose the supply source,
this is known as the skin effect and can be reduced by using copper pipes instead of wire.
Hysteresis is the power consumed by aligning the molecules in a structure to give it a magnetic field and is noticed as heat.
When a magnetic field cuts through the core of a transformer (see "Transformers" for more on transformers), it aligns the molecules of the core, this work consumes energy from the circuit and produces
heat in the core.
The core will remain partially magnetized when the magnetic field has been removed, this remaining magnetism is known as the residual magnetism and is caused by some of the molecules remaining aligned or partially aligned and
unless a demagnetizing force known as the coercive force is applied in the opposite direction, the core will remain in that state.
The energy required to align the molecules is how power is lost, as the magnetic field changes direction, the molecules attempt to align themselves within this field and in doing so they consume energy, which heats up the core,
once the molecules have aligned themselves according to the magnetic field, it requires very little energy to keep them there.
Energy is the force that produces work or is the power used to create work.
Energy is a strange substance that has existed before all time and space, according to scientific theory, energy was expelled during the big bang and the rapid expansion of energy through the void of space, allowed the energy
to form discrete packets of matter, protons, neutrons, electrons and their respective antiparticles (antiparticles are beyond the scope of this website, however, you can check out
"How Stuff Works" for more on antiparticles) and the energy from this astronomical explosion is still rippling through space's void in the form of matter, that is why E=MC2!.
E=MC2 states that matter can be directly converted back to the energy that created it, all them aeons ago, this is correct and the atomic bomb proves it.
The modern "bomb", uses high explosives to compress a plutonium core and force a fission reaction from neutron bombardment (fission means, the plutonium atom splits), this action of fission releases energy that is fed into a
secondary, which contains materials that will undergo a fusion reaction when the correct requirements are met (fusion means the joining of atoms to form larger atoms and not molecules), the fusion reaction that ensures, is fed
upon itself and the thermonuclear holocaust, explodes suddenly into existence.
I personally believe that E=MC2 could possibly be flawed or not quite correct, it's just that c2 (the speed of light squared, 300,000,0000± x 300,000,0000±) is such an astronomical number that it comes pretty damn close!.
All living creatures consume some form of matter as food, to sustain the numerous chemical reactions that make the creature, viruses on the other hand, can be but a strand of DNA, RNA (a molecule similar to DNA), which is small
enough to enter the cellular membranes of a cell and there within, is treated by the cellular machinery as local RNA or DNA that is native to the creature, the nucleotides or codons on the strand encode for specific amino acids
and proteins, these in return, help in separate chemical reactions that make new copies of the virus, eventually the duplicate viruses are released by the infected cell either by rupturing the cell or by simply breaking free
from the cell, either case releases thousands of new virus copies through out the organism and infection takes hold.
Now that you understand that..., the most amazing thing is, energy is not only used to drive the cellular machinery but is also used in the formation of RNA, enzymes, amino acids or proteins, the enzymes/amino acids fold to form
the protein which also uses energy and the atomic bonds that bind the molecules together constantly use energy, food is therefor consumed by each individual cell in the body in order to sustain such events.
The big question is, will energy ever dissipate or become that diluted with the expansion through space that work can no longer be done!, if so, matter will cease to exist and so will we!.
"The outer layers of the earth's atmosphere where the density is so reduced that electrically charged particles can exist."
Quoted from "Heinemann Australian Dictionary, 5th Edition".
Electric plasma is made from ionized or electrified gas and is said to be the forth state of matter (this differs from the plasma of medical terms, which resides in the blood).
Plasma is created by pumping matter with energy, technically this means solids could also be turned into plasma given enough energy but solids and liquids aside, gases are easily ionized and can be converted to plasma by a
number of ways, electric fields are probably the easiest but heat and pressure can also generate plasmas, when enough energy has been delivered to any given atom it will give up electrons, ionization occurs and providing a
constant source of energy will keep this ionization going.
Due to the ionization, plasma becomes conductive and can be effected by magnetic fields, the ions that exist will easily accept electrons and the atomless electrons can easily be absorbed by other ions or atoms.
Typically an electric field is used with a gas that may have been heated or cooled to a certain temperature (usually heated but experimentally cold gases could be a ground of interest to molecular physicists and theorists), the
energy supplied by the electric field is enough to knock electrons out of their shells in the gaseous material, these electrons are drawn toward the positive terminal (according to electron flow) and absorbed by the conductor at
the same instant in time, electrons are delivered into the gaseous material by the negative terminal and due to ionization in the conductor (generator) a constant flow of electrons will occur (see
"Dynamic" to read about ionization in the conductor).
Ionized gas is an interesting substance, electrons are constantly moving in plasma and generate a magnetic field, plasma can therefor be seen by the naked eye, as the electrons change orbital's in atoms, they emit photons in the
visible wavelength and we have all seen this in lightning bolts.
Different types of plasma can exist in several states some descriptions of which are beyond the scope of this website and more can be read on How Stuff Works, the states are as follows...
Common Plasma, as the name implies, this is the most general form that most people will encounter, the state is made from partially ionized atoms and the effects are generated by the electrons.
Fusion Plasma or Thermonuclear Plasma, in which all of the electrons have been stripped from the atoms and the resulting is a coexistence and can be held in place via magnetic fields.
This state is said to be able to create fusion reactions that can in return power the plasma that creates the reaction, enough force is given to ions during acceleration that they overcome electric forces that would otherwise
force them apart.
Nucleon Plasma is generated when astronomical amounts of energy are supplied, the nuclei of the atoms themselves tear apart (the atom splits) and the plasma exists as individual protons, neutrons and electrons.
Quark plasma is the last known state of plasma that has yet been probed by man, when tremendous energy is supplied the nucleons collapse into their respective components, quarks and gluons and these come in several types but
are beyond the scope of this website, see How Stuff Works for more on quarks and gluons, these components have been created by man in particle accelerates.
Plasma is said to be one of the most abundant states of matter in the known universe and has existed in one form or another since the milliseconds that proceeded the big bang.
Capacitors can be explained with water analogies as well.
Think of a capacitor as a bucket that contains water compressed at a certain pressure, the amount of water that the bucket can hold will determine the amount of current
it can hold and the pressure at which the water is compressed and can be thought of as the voltage.
The common analogy, is a hollow ball filled with water and a rubber strip inside across the middle, so that is to say, the one ball has been split into, two water filled semi-circular segments and each segment has a connection
through which water can flow into or out of that area (the water cannot however flow from one segment to the other, the rubber strip that splits the two areas will prevent this), water which is pumped into one segment (the
positive) will cause a pressure increase and this forces the rubber strip of this segment to stretch, thus expanding the area of the segment, this in return is mirrored in the second segment as a decrease of area (as the area of
one increases the other shall decrease), this too will increase pressure on the water contained in the second segment and shall force water out of the other segment and a lower pressure area (negative) is created (this negative
segment is of lesser pressure with respect to the positive segment).
If the tap (on the hose leading in to the positive segment) is closed and water is no longer being pumped in, the increase of pressure will cease but the rubber strip will keep the pressure on each side constant.
So if we were to disconnect the capacitor/ball from the pump, a pressurized potential difference is still present and if a circuit was connected between the high pressure (positive) segment and the low pressure (negative)
segment and the tap was opened, the pressure would flow from the positive, through the circuit and to the negative, until their is no difference in pressure on either side.
A few factors affect capacitors, mostly the length of time it takes to charge, the amount of charge that can build in the capacitor is naturally dependant upon the capacitance of the capacitor (which is normally rated as pico or
micro farads), the greater the capacitance, the longer it will take to charge but the greater the current value.
The capacitor will store a certain potential value at a certain current value, the farad value defines the amount of current and this has two implications upon any electrical circuit, the first of which should have already been
realized by the above statements, a 250 volt capacitor with a farad value of 2.2uF (microfarad), would take a small amount of time (femtoseconds) to fully charge, while a 250 volt capacitor with a 3500uF (microfarad) value,
would take a while longer to charge (nanoseconds, this is also depending on the resistance of the circuit)!.
Secondly, the amount of available current stored after a given length of time is dependant on the voltage value of the capacitor, so a 7 volt capacitor with a farad value of 2.2uF (microfarad) would be almost instantly, fully
charged but 2.2uF at 7 volts of potential energy has an extremely limited usage.
250 volt (or larger) capacitors with large farad values (especially over 1000uF), can deliver nasty shocks and maybe detrimental to your health/life (seriously!).
Alternating currents will not maintain a constant charge in a capacitor and power is alternately fed into and taken out of the capacitor, therefor a capacitor on an alternating current uses no net power!.
A voltage applied across a flat capacitor will appear to create a current flow, until the capacitor has reached the same voltage as the supply, a later rise in supply voltage, could be noticed as current flowing into the
capacitor and a drop in supply voltage would cause a current flow from the capacitor.
As the voltage in the capacitor rises, it has a resistive effect on the supply current (see "Resistance" for more on resistance), this causes the supply current to deteriorate over time and once the
capacitor has reached it's maximum potential, both forces (voltage from the supply and voltage from the capacitor) will cancel each other out and no current will flow into the capacitor!.
When the supply voltage drops, the capacitor has a greater voltage stored in it's electrostatic field, this overcomes the voltage applied to the capacitor and therefor creates the current flow, however, the supply voltage now
causes the resistive effect and as the resistive supply voltages diminish, a greater current shall flow from the capacitor.
When the alternating supply current begins to fall in voltage, the capacitor discharges and supplies power back to the source, this can be noticed as a current flowing out of the capacitor, during a complete cycle the capacitor
has been charged twice and discharged twice.
For all instances however, it is merely considered that alternating currents flow "through" a capacitor and power is not returned to the supply from the capacitor, the current merely reverses direction as the supply voltage
reverses it polarity.
Capacitive reactance is a measure of how much a capacitor will resist change in voltage and is dependant upon supply frequency, voltage and capacity of the capacitor, reactance is measured in ohms.
Diodes are a one way only path for electrons.
Think of a diode as a check valve, which only allows water (or electrons) to travel in one direction through itself but not another.
A simple check valve contains only a ball bearing encased in a cylinder, when pressure is applied (gas/air or liquid) the ball bearing will be forced through the cylinder in the direction of the pressure flow, if the pressure is
flowing in a forward biased direction the ball bearing will still allow pressure to flow through, whereas if the pressure is reversed biased, the ball bearing will be forced in the opposite direction through the cylinder (the
opposite direction of forward biased), however, this end of the cylinder is tapered (for example) and when the ball bearing has seated itself into the tapper it will create an air tight seal, thus blocking the flow of pressure
(a tapper is the best seal!).
Diodes operate in exactly the same way, except they have no moving parts and they block the flow of electrons with electrical forces.
For a basic description, a diode is constructed from two different types of material, a P type (or positive type) and an N type (or negative type) and electron flow occurs from N type to P type.
When a negative potential is placed on the N type material, electrons in the N type material are pushed away from the applied negative potential (like forces repel), out of the N type material and into the P type material (and
from there to the positive terminal of the battery).
Now if a positive potential is placed on the N type material, the electrons are pulled toward the applied positive potential (opposite forces attract), this increases resistance from the increased electrical forces, thus
blocking the flow of electrons across the diode.
L.E.Ds are a particular type of diode that will emit light (or photons) when electron flow occurs from N type to P type material, hence the name Light Emitting Diode (which is of course what L.E.D stands for).
Light Emitting Diodes coming in all shapes, sizes and colors, also ongoing research into semi-conductor and doping materials is always decreasing the development costs and the size of L.E.Ds, while increasing efficiency.
A new technology, for instance, has been developed from organic light emitting compounds, such as those found in deep sea creatures that create their own light, as the suns rays do not penetrate to those depths, L.E.Ds that have
been engineered from such compounds are called Organic Light Emitting Diodes or O.L.E.Ds and many of us are already using these in our hand held devices.
Interestingly Qualcomm has just developed a type of screen they call the "interferometric modular" display (or IMOD for short) and mimics the same nano-scale optical processes that nature uses to create bright colors on
creatures like butterflies, this makes screens on portable devices easier to read even in the sun's glare, while consuming very little energy!.
Another particular type of L.E.D, is the bipolar L.E.D, these diodes will allow electrons to flow in either direction and will not block the current flow, however, these types will emit a certain color when forward biased and
another color when reversed biased.
A spark gap is a very tiny break or gap in the circuit where "high voltage" arcs or sparks maybe seen discharging.
Spark gaps are normally used for discharging high voltage capacitors, sometimes they are used as a means of protection against abrupt changes in high voltages.
When a high voltage capacitor discharges across a spark gap, the result is a current flow through the atmosphere (the atmosphere filling the gap or break in the circuit) of incredibly high frequency.
A spark gap has two terminals to which you must supply a high voltage source and another two terminals that constitute the gap or break, across which the discharge shall occur, the discharge gap terminals shall be referred to
(on this website) as the emitter and collector, assuming at any one instant of time, one of the terminals will be negative, which shall be the emitter and the other positive, which shall be the collector (according to actual
current flow and not conventional current flow).
The emitter terminal of the spark gap ionizes the air in between the terminals, until a current path has been created by the ions between the emitter and collector, a current then flows and once a voltage capable of ionizing
the air has been reached, this happens rather quickly!.
It makes me wonder if the word arc was derived from the ark of biblical terms (Noah's ark, carried noah and his family, along with two of every kind of land animal, male and female during the biblical floods), the electric arc
carries a charge with it, like noah's ark carried life with it... or was it because they noticed the electric arc would arc (like a curved line) over a distance, instead of staying straight or linear.
A handyman/scientist is as only good as the tools they use (Sir William Herschel declared that stars grow from light, perhaps if he had a better telescope he would have realised otherwise)!.
- Side cutters
- Needle-Nosed pliers
- Torque wrench
- Claw hammer
- Rivet gun
- Silicone gun
- Spray bottle
- Multi-Grips or Vice-Grips
- Shears, Tin snips and/or scissors
- Bench vice
- Set of phillips head screwdrivers
- Set of chisel head screwdrivers
- Set of torx head screwdrivers
- Set of micrometers
- Set of shifters
- Set of knifes
- Set of open end and/or Ring spanners
- Set of files (Round and flat, including a nail file)
- Set of honing attachments
- Sets of magnets (Rare earth, Neodymium and/or Ferrite)
- Sets of jumper leads (Many as possible and of various current carrying capacity)
- Sets of drills (Various kinds, such as steel, masonry, wood and glass)
- Drill (Cordless and/or Mains powered)
- Drill press
- Steel milling machine (Preferably CNC)
- Steel press
- Steel roller (Rolling mill)
- Pipe bender
- Ear muffs and/or plugs
- High Temp., High Voltage gloves
- Gas mask (Preferably with interchangeable filters)
- Welding helmet
- Oxy torch and/or Stick and/or MIG welder
- High temp. furnace
- Angle grinder
- Die grinder
- Bench grinder
- Air-Compressor and/or Venturi vacuum pump attachments
- High pressure vacuum chamber
- Engraver (Preferably adjustable)
- Feeler gauge
- Vernier calipers
- Measuring tape (Long as possible)
- Soldering iron and/or Various tips
- Syringe and Long needle
- Splinter probes
- Butane torch and/or Candle
- Needle-Nosed tweezers
- Signal generator
- Auto-Ranging multimeter
- Clamp meter or Ammeter
- Lux meter (Measures light intensity)
- Non-Contact thermal probe
- Various types of motors (Small/Large and/or AC and/or DC)
- Laboratory power supply and/or Variac transformer
- PICMicro microcontroller programmer (Hardware device that connects to PC)
- Microcontroller programming software interface (MPLAB IDE)
- Personal computer (Operating either Windows, Linux or MacOS distribution)
- Computer programming software interface (C++, Pascal, BASIC etc...)
- Digital camera/s
- Binoculars or telescope
- Magnifying glass
- Thermos Flask (Carries liquid nitrogen or hot liquids)
- Crystal radio earphone (Piezocrystal earphone)
- Laser and/or laser pointer
- Timepiece and/or stopwatch (Additionally perhaps, a chronograph)
- An assistant or apprentice (Friend, Family and/or Paid worker)
- Powerful UHF "two-way" radios (Preferably handheld or portable)
- The knowledge to make use of all these!
A handyman/scientist is as only good as the materials that they have available to them (Einstein theorised the L.A.S.E.R but could not build it due to a lack of materials)!.
- Pens and/or Pencils
- Paper (Post-It notes are good)
- Various glues (Craft, Super and/or Epoxy)
- Fiberglass (Epoxy resin)
- Hot glue
- Heat-shrink wrap
- Thermal paste
- Silicone paste (Comes in a tube that loads into a gun)
- Silica based soda-lime glass powder (Silica Sand)
- Sealy's No Gaps (Spray on gap filler)
- Plaster of paris
- Graphite powder
- Gun powder or other highly flammable "dry" substance
- Liquid combustibles (Petrol, Hydrogen etc...)
- Zip ties
- Cotton buds (Ear buds)
- Cotton wool
- Cloths, rags and/or Paper towel
- A good supplier of leather
- Electrical tape and/or Electrical liquid tape (paint on)
- Double-Sided tape
- Sticky velcro tabs
- Copper or conductor wire and/or pipe of various lengths, thicknesses and/or diameters
- PVC sheet and/or pipe of various lengths, thicknesses and/or diameters
- Aluminum foil
- Cling (Plastic) wrap
- A quantity of 35mm film canisters with lids
- Paddlepop sticks
- Plastic spoons
- Various oils (Household, Automotive and/or Electrical)
- Various PNP and NPN transistors
- Various SCR's
- Various diodes
- Various L.E.D's
- Various capacitors
- Various types of bulbs or lamps (Torch, Neon, Automotive etc...)
- Various screws, nut and bolts
- Various types of alligator clips or clamps
- Various grades of sand paper
- Various relays and/or Switch gear (Household, Automotive and/or Grid line distribution)
- A good supply of various chemicals (Liquid nitrogen, Helium etc...)
- The money to do all of this!
- A bucket of water to refill the brain waves! ;-)
For a more advanced method of obtaining static electricity one could build or construct themselves an actual static generator, below i have included basic plans for my style of static generator if anyone should find them interesting.
I have recently coded a small pascal (OOP) program (Delphi 6) that includes web browsers that are directed at my various radiant energy related websites, should you forget the web addresses... this program will provide you with the
shortcuts that will bring you directly to my websites, also included is both a browser which can save it's address for quick access later, this browser can be directed at any URL address and a most useful notepad for note taking about
various websites or information gleaned.
The source code is included and can be downloaded individually the executable is a Win32 application and as of yet no Linux equivalent has been developed although i may do this at a later date, both the source and application are
compressed into a *.rar file, please download (WinRAR) to decompress!.