Using the household earth/ground stake, i have found, is not of optimum conditions when experimenting with radiant energy, a certain amount of power termed the "Tingle Voltage" is leaked from the grid and not
supplied by the atmosphere, this is also why "low altitude" radiant energy seemed at first to be an alternating current.
With the need for a large metallic surface to be elevated a distance from the ground, i cleaned the galvanized paint from the house roof and connected a wire to it, i repeated this on the garage roof, the
two roofs are separated or insulated from each other and no electrical current can flow from one roof to another, this way i can present a larger surface area for the radiant energy to collect upon (the
more roofs the better)!.
All of the wires had their ends twisted together to form one single positive terminal, this was then connected to one of the terminals of a device or circuit, the other terminal of which was connected directly to
the earth pole on the house (a metallic rod nailed to the house and buried in the ground with a wire attached to it, earth terminals in the power points through out the house are connected to this, or for a safer
alternative and to eliminate tingle voltages from your experiments and apparatus, you can drive your own metal rod into the ground, or get a earthing mat buried, it must be at a depth where the earth still contains moisture
and check for water pipes and buried electrical cables first, circuits in this connection and in low altitude installations will be acted upon solely by radio transmissions, unless struck by lightning)!.
The amount of power drained from the grid like this is still considerably small and does not necessarily prove the existence of radiant energy, however though, in this arrangement most L.E.Ds will automatically light and tiny
sparks can be seen when brushing the terminals together at night or in the dark!.
The majority of power gathered at such low altitudes are from the feeble wattages of man-made transmitters and material or structural capacitance of the roofs that i used, however, i am assuming that as the
altitude is increased the effects of these transmitters and of the grid leakage would be diminished!.
The image below displays how the house and garage roofs are connected to ground through a device or circuit C.
In the case of a tingle voltage, electrical energy accumulating on the roof/s from the grid leakage current will flow along the wire from ground or earth through the device or circuit C, and for radio
transmissions, current will flow along the wire from roof to ground or earth through the device or circuit C!.
Diagrammatic image of house and circuit
Most L.E.Ds as stated before, will operate when connected by wire between roof and ground, no special support circuitry needed but a couple of interesting things must be noted...
One, the amount of power within the circuit will depend largely upon what type of diode is used, for example, one diode may have 7 volts across the terminals, while another may have upto 30 volts!.
This would be due to the "peak reverse voltage" or "peak inverse voltage" of the diode in question!.
As far as the majority of the circuits displayed on this webpage (tingle.html) they do not show the complete picture of the circuit, at such low altitudes the currents are leaked from the grid supply and these are
the primary cause for the energy stored in the capacitor.
The below two images show the complete circuit including the grid (an extremely simplified version of the grid with only two household consumers), i am not suggesting that you should attempt to connect wires
to the mains line or grid lines the below images are assuming that you are using or have installed a "multiple-earthed neutral" switchboard (that houses your meters, R.C.Ds or at best fuses) or compatible
wiring in your house or residence.
Also i am not able to determine your local grounding conditions and connections such as those displayed here might lead to hazardous situations which could be detrimental to your health!, the earth/ground conductor should be
considered a live mains wire and depending on where you live, with a high current value at either 240v or 110v on it.
Power that is delivered to the home via mains or grid lines is first connected through a watt meter and various sorts of protection units before being connected to household power outlets, most homes have a "multiple-earthed neutral"
switchboard and this means that all of the wires label as neutral in your house are connected to earth/ground, only a single connection is made to one neutral wire at the switchboard and all other neutral wires are lead off to
power points from this one central location.
Houses that conform to this standard have nailed or firmly secured to them at some point, a long metallic conductor that is buried a certain depth into the earth/ground and to this conductor is connected the live neutral mains wire
and is done so as a method of protection against hazardous electrical fault currents, in particular, those that would otherwise travel across the human body.
With the M.E.N earth stake connected to every household power outlet as such, fault currents have a connection to earth through which the circuit is completed and the consumers or residents are saved from electric shock or worse.
This image displays a much preferred method of collecting, storing and using this leakage of current, a greater increase to the amount of power leaked is noticed, when compared to a aerial/antenna connection and this method could be
the most dangerous employment of a grid leakage circuit, once again all conductors should at first be treated as high current, live mains wires!.
I am not able to determine the depth at which the switchboard earth stake is in the ground, but the second earth stake which i, myself have driven into the ground is at 2.65m into the earth.
Tied to the bottom of this earth stake is a length of tube which i had impregnated with many holes along roughly one and a half meters of the tube walls, this tube is tied to the lower part of the stake and extends all the way
upto or just out of the earths surface (about 5cm above the surface), these holes, spaced about 10cm apart along the length of the hose and around surrounding the circumference at each location the holes are evenly placed into four
parts, the purpose of this is to keep the ground/earth/soil around bottom of the earth stake moist and thusly a better conductor for grounding circuits to.
However man made RF's also make true radiant energy experiments difficult to conduct, all of the AM, FM, UHF, VHF, Satellite Communications etc... that are collected by the aerial must be filtered out and
not allowed to act upon any of the instruments that are measuring the effects of the radiant energy! and i have not yet conducted this type of experiment, i am assuming that as the altitude is increased the effects
of these transmitters and of the grid leakage would be diminished as they should be dampened or overcome by the greater "force" (voltage) of the earth field voltage, if for example, grid leakage is producing 2v at it's
maxima on each point and earth field voltage at any given altitude is 1000v, then the aerial/antenna would fluctuate between 1002 and 998v at a frequency dependant upon not only your local grid supply but the effects
of power radiated at those altitudes from your local transmitter stations.
It is assumed that resistance of the air between radio transmitters and the aerial/antenna at such altitudes would be so large as to render any effects from the transmitters to negligible amounts and the greater
fluctuations would occur from the grid supply, only future research into these matters shall dispel the facts from the theories!.
However though, radio transmissions could be though of as nothing more than man made radiant energy (like the roentgen tube that Mr Tesla depicts in his patent which produces radiant energy), the
transmitters are "radiating" all the time, after all the roentgen tube in the patent is a man made device that can "radiate" electrical energy to a distant receiving station or circuit!.
So with the above statements i proclaim, small currents are leaked from a multiple-earthed neutral grid supply (mains wiring) and are drawn to a structural or material capacitance by either radio transmissions, earth field voltage
or other astronomical means, the capacitance of the aerial/antenna would be defined by the area covered, frequency of your local grid supply and the height at which it is held in the atmosphere.
It was previously thought this apparatus was conducting "primarily" radio transmission to earth and storing a charge in doing so, however, after much research into the phenomenon it is found, that this idea was incorrect and
according to the statements now made on this webpage, the currents are in fact leaked from the multiple-earthed switchboard metering the consumption of electricity, an apparatus has been designed for the utilization for such
current and employed as such, the currents from radio transmissions are negligible!.
Where L is an L.E.D which maybe used as an on/off visual indicator, which shall conduct on one portion of the alternating current, S is a diode or half wave rectifier that will eliminate power from returning to the
aerial/antenna during the last half of the alternation, this will allow L.E.D L to conduct in forward polarity and allow all positive charges to traverse the conductor and charge the aerial (which has a certain amount of
capacitance), while all negative charges will be blocked by L.E.D L but conducted into the capacitor by diode/rectifier S,where after a given length of time it can be discharged and used to do a certain amount of
C is a capacitor which is allowed to charge with a certain polarity, the polarity of which maybe controlled by the diodes/rectifiers and in order to operate the receiver R a device D shall periodically bridge
or make the connection between the two terminals of capacitor C, the device D shall be connected in series with the receiver R, that way electrons flowing from the positive terminal through the device D
must also pass through the receiver R in order to get to the negative terminal.
With regard to changing the charging polarity of the capacitor, as previously stated this can be done through the diodes/rectifiers, if the diodes/rectifiers are reversed, a sign of opposite polarity will accumulate in the capacitor.
At high altitudes, circuits of this construction would not suffice!, the extreme voltages would destroy any rectifiers...
These extreme voltages would overcome and effectively dampen the effects of "man made" transmitters!."
Also spark gaps (possibly sealed in glass) would be the only hope of controlling the currents (see Mr Hermann Plauson's patents).
L.E.D flasher, (Fig.4) adaptation!.
Below is a diagram of a L.E.D flasher circuit, which is an adaptation of Fig.4 but also includes a second capacitor K, that can be discharged through the receiver L.E.D R, by
pressing the switch S.
The L.E.D V, will glow until the capacitor K has recharged, capacitor K must be charged before L.E.D R, will begin to flash, capacitor F
will charge along with or at the same time as capacitor K, once capacitor K has charged, it will force the transistor to switch and turn off the charging L.E.D V.
Capacitor K is connected to the B (Base) terminal of the transistor, the cathode of L.E.D V is connected to the C (Collector) terminal of the transistor, because the
Emitter E terminal is not connected (normally to ground or to a receiver), nothing actually flows across the transistor and stops L.E.D V from glowing, if emitter E was connected
to ground, L.E.D V would glow indefinitely and the receiver L.E.D R would never flash!.